Although the initial purpose of university is to be the center of teaching, research has held significant role as the pillar activity of university. Berlin University, which is acknowledged as the first research university, was established in 1809. Compare to universities which its base is on teaching, started by University of Bologna in Italy that was established in 1088, research universities can be considered still in its early days.
Nevertheless, in its early decades, research universities had given valuable contribution toward society where it took place. Following Berlin University, research universities had been flourished in Germany, producing graduates that later promoted their industry internationally, especially in pharmacy industry. In the United States of America, research universities in the early period had produced variety of research that developed agricultural technology, forestry, and also mining in their country.
It is essential to realize the importance of universities empowered not only as center of teaching but also as center of research, which is important to gain knowledge and strategic knowledge in various stakeholders both public and private on the way in promoting the development of research through this institution. The United States of America itself is a developed country which its economy focuses on agricultural sector since 1862. It has implementing laws that encourage funding university researches potential for developing the productivity of this sector. This research funding, along with the country’s economic growth, from time to time has increased; until it reached tenfold from $39
million to $542 million during 1940-1945. Now, research has become the norm for universities around the world. Knowledge and development that are produced by researches has proven to increase competitiveness of the parties that are likely using it. Every work in university Research Park, or Science Park, from the research report by Association of University Research Park, the productivity equals to 2.57 works in work field average.
Research University also becomes a plural predicate given to universities which are superior in research activities. For the university concerned, receiving the predicate as Research University has become an honor itself. Thus, it can be said that they have real contribution for the realm of science, they have contributed for human understanding on life, which is essential for wider purposes. Firstly stated in Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education in 1994, some criteria of Research University are the following:
- Provide complete bachelor programs
- Committed to graduate schools through its doctoral program
- Give priority to research
- Give 50 or more doctoral degree in a year
Within its journey, some of these criteria are not standard. Other university network, such as AREARU (The Association of East Asian Research Universities), which involves Beijing University, Tokyo University, Seoul University, and so on, or IARU (International Alliance of Research Universities), which includes Australian National University, Cambridge University, and so on, has sparked different concept of Research University.
Carnegie itself changed the criteria in deciding research universities. Carnegie criteria since 2005 are as the following; research and development expenditure in the field of exact sciences and engineering, research and development expenditure in the field of non-exact science and engineering, the number of research staff exact sciences and engineering, the number of doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as well as other fields and produced.
In this view, it will focus on one indicator that actually cannot be ignored in determining Research universities. The indicator is publication in scientific journal which its appearance and frequency is easy to measure and also as the first and the foremost product from research activities. By publication of research activity meaning that it has produced scientific knowledge and systematic knowledge that can be accessed by those who need it. Furthermore, this article will evaluate the measures that have been taken by the University of Indonesia in managing its resources to improve the scientific publications of its staff. Of course, do not forget to mention the challenges and potential that will be faced by UI in effort to make it as internationally recognized research university comes true.
Dede Djuhana, Ph.D
Director of Research and Development UI